DEKRA Company Profile

DEKRA Industrial RSA - Ultrasonic Inspections (UT)


Ultrasonic Testing:

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and thickness measurements.  Ultrasonic inspection can be used for internal flaw detection or evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more.

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing:

Ultrasonic phased arrays use a multiple element probe whereby the output pulse from each element is time delayed in such a way as to produce constructive interference at a specific angle and a specific depth. These time delays can be incremented over a range of predefined angles to sweep the beam inside the area of inspection. Due to the possibility to control parameters such as beam angle and focal distance, this method is very efficient regarding the defect detection and speed of testing. Apart from detecting discontinuities in welds and components, phased arrays can also be used for, thickness measurements and corrosion inspection.


Measuring the amplitude of reflected signal as in traditional ultrasonic sizing techniques, is a relatively unreliable method of sizing defects because the amplitude strongly depends on the orientation of the crack. Instead of amplitude, TOFD uses the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse to determine the position of a reflector. In a TOFD system, a pair of ultrasonic probes sits on opposite sides of a weld. One of the probes, the transmitter, emits an ultrasonic pulse that is picked up by the probe on the other side, the receiver. In undamaged pipes, the signals picked up by the receiver probe are from two waves: one that travels along the surface and one that reflects off the far wall. When a crack is present, there is a diffraction of the ultrasonic wave from the tip(s) of the crack. Using the measured time of flight of the pulse, the depth of a crack tip can be calculated automatically by simple trigonometry.

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